Wednesday, August 17
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III(ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –II ) (Theory)
General methods of preparation and reaction of compounds superscripted with (*) to be explained.
To emphasize on definition, types, classification, principles/mechanisms, applications, examples
Benzene and its derivatives
Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene, Orbital picture,
resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule.
Reactions of benzene - nitration, sulphonation, halogenation- reactivity, Friedel crafts alkylationreactivity,
limitations, Friedel crafts acylation.
Substituents, effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation of mono substituted benzene
compounds towards electrophilic substitution reaction .
Structure and uses of DDT, Saccharin, BHC and Chloramine
Acidity of phenols, effect of substituents on acidity, qualitative tests, Structure and uses of phenol,
cresols, resorcinol, naphthols.
Basicity of amines, effect of substituents on basicity, and synthetic uses of aryl diazonium salts
Fats and Oils
Fatty acids – reactions.
Hydrolysis, Hydrogenation, Saponification and Rancidity of oils, Drying oils.
Analytical constants – Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Iodine value, Acetyl value,
Reichert Meissl (RM) value – significance and principle involved in their determination.
Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Diphenylmethane,
Triphenylmethane and their derivatives
Stabilities – Baeyer’s strain theory, limitation of Baeyer’s strain theory, Coulson and Moffitt’s
modification, Sachse Mohr’s theory (Theory of strainless rings), reactions of cyclopropane and
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
1. Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd
2. Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar , Volume-I
3. Textbook of Organic Chemistry by B.S. Bahl & Arun Bahl.
4. Organic Chemistry by P.L.Soni
5. Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann and Saunders.
6. Vogel’s text book of Practical Organic Chemistry
7. Advanced Practical organic chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.
8. Introduction to Organic Laboratory techniques by Pavia, Lampman and Kriz.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III(ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –II ) (Practical)
1. Experiments involving laboratory techniques
2. Determination of following oil values (including standardization of reagents)
3. Preparation of compounds
Benzanilide/Phenyl benzoate/Acetanilide from Aniline/ Phenol /Aniline by acylation
2,4,6-Tribromo aniline/Para bromo acetanilide from Aniline/ Acetanilide by halogenation
5-Nitro salicylic acid/Meta di nitro benzene from Salicylic acid / Nitro benzene by nitration
Benzoic acid from Benzyl chloride by oxidation reaction.
Benzoic acid/ Salicylic acid from alkyl benzoate/ alkyl salicylate by hydrolysis reaction.
1-Phenyl azo-2-napthol from Aniline by diazotization and coupling reactions.
Benzil from Benzoin by oxidation reaction.
Dibenzal acetone from Benzaldehyde by Claison Schmidt reaction
Cinnammic acid from Benzaldehyde by Perkin reaction
p-Iodo benzoic acid from p-amino benzoic acid
PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS-II (Theory)
Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic rate
constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing the
chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric
constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, Simple numerical problems. Stabilization of
medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability
testing in dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Photolytic degradation and its prevention
Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, nonNewtonian
systems, pseudoplastic, dilatants, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation,
determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers.
Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain, Elastic
Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in
suspensions, formulation of suspensions, emulsions and theories of emulsification. Physical
stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions, phase
equilibria and emulsion formulation.
Surface and interfacial phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface
free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at
liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB Scale, solubilisation, detergency, adsorption at solid
Classification of dispersed systems & their general characteristics, size &
shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids & comparative account of their general
properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes, coacervation,
peptization & protective action.
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin, Sixth edition
2. Experimental pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.
3. Tutorial pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to 3, Marcel
6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Disperse systems, volume 1, 2, 3.
Marcel Dekkar Inc.
7. Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C, and Manavalan
PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS- II (Practical)
1. Determination of surface tension of given liquids by drop count and drop weight method
2. Determination of HLB number of a surfactant by saponification method
3. Determination of Freundlich and Langmuir constants using activated char coal
4. Determination of critical micellar concentration of surfactants
5. Determination of viscosity of liquid using Ostwald’s viscometer
6. Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different suspending agent
7. Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different concentration of single
8. Determination of viscosity of semisolid by using Brookfield viscometer
9. Determination of reaction rate constant first order.
10. Determination of reaction rate constant second order
11. Accelerated stability studies
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-II (Theory)
Body fluids and blood
Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia,
mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood.
Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system
Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and
capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders
Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of stomach, ( Acid production in the stomach, regulation of acid production through parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin role in protein digestion) small intestine and large intestine, anatomy and functions of salivary glands, pancreas and liver,movements of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients and disorders of GIT.
Anatomy of respiratory system with special reference to anatomy of lungs, mechanism of respiration,
regulation of respiration, Lung volumes and capacities, transport of respiratory gases, artificial respiration,resuscitation methods.
Anatomy of urinary tract with special reference to anatomy of kidney and nephrons, functions of kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation, micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid base balance, role of RAS in kidney and disorders of kidney.
Anatomy of male and female reproductive system, Functions of male and female reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation, fertilization, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy and parturition.
Introduction to genetics
Chromosomes, genes and DNA, protein synthesis, genetic pattern of inheritance
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
1. Essentials of Medical Physiology by K. Sembulingam and P. Sembulingam. Jaypee brothers medical publishers, New Delhi.
2. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness by Kathleen J.W. Wilson, Churchill Livingstone, Newyork
3. Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co,Riverview,MI USA
4. Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C,Guyton andJohn.E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
5. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora Grabowski. Palmetto, GA, U.S.A.
6. Textbook of Human Histology by Inderbir Singh , Jaypee brothers medical publishers, New Delhi.
7. Textbook of Practical Physiology by C.L. Ghai , Jaypee brothers medical publishers, New Delhi.
8. Practical workbook of Human Physiology by K. Srinageswari and Rajeev Sharma, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.
1. Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI USA
2. Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
3. Human Physiology (vol 1 and 2) by Dr. C.C. Chatterrje ,Academic Publishers Kolka
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (Practical)
1. Introduction to hemocytometry.
2. Enumeration of white blood cell (WBC) count
3. Enumeration of total red blood corpuscles (RBC) count
4. Determination of bleeding time and clotting time
5. Determination of clotting time
6. Estimation of hemoglobin content
7. Determination of blood group.
8. Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
9. Determination of heart rate and pulse rate.
10. Recording of blood pressure.
11. Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
12. Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
13. Recording of basal mass index.
14. Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
15. Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer.
16. Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads.
PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Theory)
Introduction, history of microbiology, its branches, scope and its importance.
Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Study of ultra-structure and morphological classification of bacteria, nutritional requirements,
raw materials used for culture media and physical parameters for growth, growth curve,
isolation and preservation methods for pure cultures, cultivation of anaerobes, quantitative
measurement of bacterial growth (total & viable count).
Study of different types of phase microscopy, dark field microscopy and electron microscopy.
Identification of bacteria using staining techniques (simple, Gram’s & Acid fast staining) and
biochemical tests (IMViC).
Study of principle, procedure, merits, demerits and applications of Physical, chemical and
mechanical method of sterilization.
Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization methods.
Equipments employed in large scale sterilization.
Study of morphology, classification, reproduction/replication and cultivation of Fungi and
Classification and mode of action of disinfectants
Factors influencing disinfection, antiseptics and their evaluation.
Evaluation of bactericidal & Bacteriostatic.
Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products) according
to IP, BP and USP.
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipments; study of different sources of
contamination in an aseptic area and methods of prevention, clean area classification.
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay. Methods for standardization of
antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids.
Assessment of a new antibiotic and testing of antimicrobial activity of a new substance.
General aspects-environmental cleanliness.
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products,
sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of microbial contamination and
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of microbial
stability of formulations.
Growth of animal cells in culture, general procedure for cell culture, Primary, established and
transformed cell cultures.
Application of cell cultures in pharmaceutical industry and research.
Recommended Books (Latest edition)
1. W. B. Hugo and A.D. Russel: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Blackwell Scientific
publications, Oxford London.
2. Prescott and Dunn., Industrial Microbiology, 4th edition, CBS Publishers & Distributors,
3. Pelczar, Chan Kreig, Microbiology, Tata McGraw Hill edn.
4. Malcolm Harris, Balliere Tindall and Cox: Pharmaceutical Microbiology.
5. Rose: Industrial Microbiology.
6. Probisher, Hinsdill et al: Fundamentals of Microbiology, 9th ed. Japan
7. Cooper and Gunn’s: Tutorial Pharmacy, CBS Publisher and Distribution.
8. Peppler: Microbial Technology.
9. I.P., B.P., U.S.P. - latest editions.
10. Ananthnarayan: Text Book of Microbiology, Orient-Longman, Chennai
11. Edward: Fundamentals of Microbiology.
12. N.K.Jain: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi
13. Bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology, Williams and Wilkins- A Waverly company
PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Practical)
1. Introduction and study of different equipments and processing, e.g., B.O.D. incubator, laminar flow, aseptic hood, autoclave, hot air sterilizer, deep freezer, refrigerator, microscopes used in experimental microbiology.
2. Sterilization of glassware, preparation and sterilization of media.
3. Sub culturing of bacteria and fungus. Nutrient stabs and slants preparations.
4. Staining methods- Simple, Grams staining and acid fast staining (Demonstration).
5. Staining methods- Simple, Grams staining and acid fast staining (Student Practical)
6. Isolation of pure culture of micro-organisms by multiple streak plate technique.
7. Microbiological assay of antibiotics by cup plate method.
8. Motility determination by Hanging drop method.
9. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
10. Bacteriological analysis of water
11. Biochemical test (IMViC reactions)
12. Revision Practical Class
Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics and significance
Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance
HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance
Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level phosphorylation
Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers
β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)
Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis
De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)
Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid
hormone and vitamin D
Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.
Amino acid metabolism
General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination and decarboxylation,
urea cycle and its disorders
Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenyketonuria,
Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)
Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline,
Catabolism of heme; hyperbillirubinemia and jaundice
Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
Catabolism of purine nucleotides and hyperuricemia and gout disease
Organization of mammalian genome
Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions
DNA replication (semi conservative model)
Transcription or RNA synthesis
Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors
Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic
acids, amino acids and proteins.
Concept of free energy, undergone and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy,
enthalpy and entropy, Redox potential.
Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP
Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes
Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)
Enzyme inhibitors with examples
Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes
Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger.
2. Harper’s Biochemistry by Robert K. Murry, Daryl K. Granner and Victor W. Rodwell.
3. Biochemistry by Stryer.
4. Biochemistry by D. Satyanarayan and U.Chakrapani.
5. Textbook of Biochemistry by Rama Rao.
6. Textbook of Biochemistry by Deb.
7. Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn and Stumpf
8. Practical Biochemistry by R.C. Gupta and S. Bhargavan.
9. Introduction of Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer. (3rd Edition)
10. Practical Biochemistry for Medical students by Rajagopal and Ramakrishna.
11. Practical Biochemistry by Harold Varley.
1. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates (Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose and
2. Identification tests for Proteins (albumin and Casein)
3. Quantitative analysis of reducing sugars (DNSA method) and Proteins (Biuret method)
4. Qualitative analysis of urine for abnormal constituents
5. Determination of blood creatinine
6. Determination of blood sugar
7. Determination of serum total cholesterol
8. Preparation of buffer solution and measurement of pH
9. Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch
10. Determination of Salivary amylase activity
11. Study the effect of Temperature on Salivary amylase activity.
12. Study the effect of substrate concentration on salivary amylase activity.
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Theory)
Binary number system, Decimal number system, Octal number system,
Hexadecimal number systems, conversion decimal to binary, binary to decimal, octal to binary etc,
binary addition, binary subtraction – One’s complement ,Two’s complement method, binary
multiplication, binary division.
Concept of Information Systems and Software:
Information gathering, requirement and feasibility
analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning
and managing the project.
Introduction to HTML, XML, CSS and Programming languages, introduction to
web servers and Server Products.
Introduction to databases, MYSQL, MS ACCESS, Pharmacy Drug database.
Application of computers in Pharmacy –
Drug information storage and retrieval, Pharmacokinetics,
Mathematical model in Drug design, Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy, Electronic Prescribing and
discharge (EP) systems, barcode medicine identification and automated dispensing of drugs, mobile
technology and adherence monitoring.
Diagnostic System, Lab-diagnostic System, Patient Monitoring System, Pharma Information System.
Bioinformatics: Introduction, Objective of Bioinformatics, Bioinformatics Databases, Concept of
Bioinformatics, Impact of Bioinformatics in Vaccine Discovery.
Computers as data analysis in Preclinical development: Chromatographic dada analysis
(CDS), Laboratory Information management System (LIMS) and Text Information Management
Recommended books (Latest edition):
1. Computer Application in Pharmacy – William E. Fassett –Lea and Febiger, 600 South
Washington Square, USA, (215) 922-1330.
2. Computer Application in Pharmaceutical Research and Development –Sean Ekins – WileyIntescience,
A John Willey and Sons, INC., Publication, USA
3. Bioinformatics (Concept, Skills and Applications) – S. C. Rastogi-CBS Publishers and
Distributiors 4596/1- A, 11 Darya Gani, New Delhi – 110 002(INDIA)
4. Microsoft office Access - 2003, Application Development Using VBA, SQL Server, DAP and
Infopath – Cary N. Prague – Wiley Dreamtech India (P) Ltd., 4435/7, Ansari Road, Daryagani,
New Delhi - 110002
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Theory)
1. Design a questionnaire using a word processing package to gather information about a particular disease.
2. Create a HTML web page to show personal information.
3. Retrieve the information of a drug and its adverse effects using online tools
4. Creating mailing labels Using Label Wizard , generating label in MS WORD
5. Create a database in MS Access to store the patient information with the required fields Using access
6. Design a form in MS Access to view, add, delete and modify the patient record in the database
7. Generating report and printing the report from patient database
8. Creating invoice table using – MS Access
9. Drug information storage and retrieval using MS Access
10. Creating and working with queries in MS Access
11. Exporting Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports to web pages
12. Exporting Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports to XML pages